Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani’s prime influence comes from his status as Shi’ism’s leading marjah al-taqlid, the title (literally object of emulation) given to a cleric whom Iraq’s 15 million Shia Muslims regard as a guide in every aspect of their lives. For a man who rarely left his own house, or said a single word to the mass media, this is quite phenomenal! Grand Ayatollah Sistani: Role and likely successors Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani has been the most influen-tial leader in Iraq since the toppling of Saddam Hussein in 2003. This means the reclusive, Iranian-born 73-year-old wields a tremendous degree of influence over the nation's future. In August 2004 Sistani traveled to Britain to undergo medical treatment and surgery for a worsening heart condition. MOBILE VIEW. Mr Sistani champions the separation of mosque and state. The destruction of the Iraqi state by the 2003 US-led invasion and occupation of Iraq resulted in the rise of the Shiite clerics in Iraq, in particular, the most senior cleric in Iraq’s Najaf city Ayatollah Ali Sistani who has emerged as a key political power broker after the invasion. They say he has a calm, content, and patient personality. In reply to a question about fasting in the Month of Ramadan in the shadow of the Coronavirus outbreak, the Grand Ayatollah Sistani emphasized that fasting as an individual duty is Wajib, and whoever has the conditions it is obligatory to fast regardless of it being Wajib for others or not. His asceticism is apparent from his food, clothing, and residence. Question & Answer. He is the most important Shiite cleric in Iraq, where the population is about 60 percent Shiite. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Ali al-Sistani, Iranian-born Shi’i cleric and a leader of the Iraqi Shi’i community. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. But with neighboring Iran moving to install its preferred candidate in the position, the secular political foundations of Iraq's fledgling democracy are at risk. Großajatollah Ali as-Sistani (persisch سیدعلی حسینی سیستانی, DMG Seyyed-ʿAlī Ḥosainī Sīstānī; arabisch علي الحسيني السيستاني, DMG ʿAlī al-Ḥusainī as-Sīsitānī; * ungefähr 4. Shiite factions close to Sistani move to separate from Iran-backed militias. Known for his intelligence and charisma, Sistani rose quickly through the clerical ranks, and, unlike Ruhollah Khomeini, a fellow cleric in Al-Najaf who would come to rule Iran (1979–89), Sistani eschewed militancy for a “quietist” philosophy. In June Sistani called on Iraqis to join the fight against the militant group and pushed for the replacement of Prime Minister Nūrī al-Mālikī and his government. Both were prominent and well-known scholars in the religious seminaries in Najaf, Qum, and Mashhad. August 1930 in Maschhad, Iran) ist der bedeutendste schiitische Geistliche im heutigen Irak. Although born in Iran, he is no fan of Khamenei and other hardliners in Tehran, preferring the likes of President Hassan Rouhani . Al-Sistani est une personnalité politique influente en Irak depuis le renversement du gouvernement de Saddam Hussein. From the Council on Foreign Relations, January 16, 2003. Who is the Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani? In his late eighties, Mr Al Sistani is the main religious authority, or marjaa -- reference -- among Iraq’s majority Shiites, having moved to Najaf from Iran in the 1950s. Sistani increasingly found himself marginalized as his calls for calm went unheeded and efforts to restrain his followers became more and more difficult. He is described as the spiritual leader of Iraqi Shia Muslims and one of the most senior clerics in Shia Islam. His control of the Revolutionary Guard guarantees that the religious clerics have authority over the civil government. Biography of Ayatollah Sayed Ali Sistani English. Sistani’s support for free elections in Iraq—underscored by a 2004 fatwa (legal opinion) decreeing that Iraqis register to vote—carried great significance. Meanwhile, Muqtadā al-Ṣadr, a young militant cleric, waged a fierce guerrilla battle against U.S. and Iraqi forces in Al-Najaf. THE Americans are becoming exasperated by Iraq's most powerful ayatollah. He is the most important Shiite cleric in Iraq, where the population is about 60 percent Shiite. And it is the seat of the most popular Shia cleric, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani (pictured). The reclusive cleric left Najaf for the first time in years for heart surgery He is one of only five living grand ayatollahs and the most senior Shia cleric in Iraq. Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani Council on Foreign Relations ^ | 12-5-03 | Sharon Otterman Posted on 12/06/2003 11:38:46 AM PST by FlyLow. Though born in Iran, he has lived and taught in Najaf, Iraq, the intellectual capital of global Shiism, since the age of 21. A bold move by PMU groupings aligned with Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani is set to challenge the level of influence of pro-Iran militias in Iraq. Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi resigned later that month, and the parliament passed an electoral reform in December. Ayatollah Sistani Since the American invasion, he has had more influence over Iraqi politics than any other figure in Iraq. General Guidelines from the Supreme Religious Authority for Lecturers and Preachers during Muharram 1438 A.H. What is the ruling on abortion for a pregnant woman who is infected with AIDS? After Ayatollah al-Khoei's demise on Safar 8, 1413/August 8, 1992, Ayatollah al-Sistani took over the … Omissions? MOBILE VIEW A picture of Iraq's top Shiite cleric Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani is seen at a shop in a market in the capital Baghdad, Iraq, Jan. 18, 2020. In Al-Najaf, Sistani was devoted to ensuring power for a Shiʿi majority in his adopted country, which had been led by a Sunni minority for centuries. His Eminence Sayyid al-Sistani was born on the ninth of Rabi al-Awwal in 1349 AH in the Holy City of Mashhad in Iran. Brigades close to top Shiite cleric Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani announced the formation of a mobilization force affiliated with the chief of staff of the Iraqi armed forces, rather than Iran. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, born 4 August 1930, the most important Shiite cleric in Iraq, where the population is about 60 percent Shiite. Hassan Rouhani’s trip to Iraq was discussed from various angles by observers, but few noticed that he did not carry any greetings from Iran’s Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei to the highest religious leader of Shiites, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani … He does not like self-promotion and forbids his representatives from spending a penny on advertising his religious autho… He is very humble and has lived an extremely simple life. In his early 20s he left Iran to continue his studies in Iraq, becoming a disciple of Grand Ayatollah Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei in Al-Najaf. The 2010s saw a number of crises that returned Sistani to the position of a political arbiter. May 30, 2020. The destruction of the Iraqi state by the 2003 US-led invasion and occupation of Iraq resulted in the rise of the Shiite clerics in Iraq, in particular, the most senior cleric in Iraq’s Najaf city Ayatollah Ali Sistani who has emerged as a … Answer: It is better not to, and its preferable to choose another animal as a pet, as a dog is ritually impure (Najis) according to Islamic law, and thus it would cause one to live with considerable difficulty.It's also been mentioned that prayers in a place with a dog around is abominable (Makrooh). AIM Editor May 30, 2017 Questions & Answers 8,846 Views. The differences of these two religious centers are not new. Who's who in Iraq: Ayatollah Sistani Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani is the prime marja, or spiritual reference, for Shia Muslims everywhere. Although he served as the spiritual leader of Iraq’s Shiʿi community, Sistani also commanded the respect of Sunni Arabs and Kurds. A broader contest of influence between Sistani and Ṣadr continued, however, and some of Sistani’s followers began to shift toward Ṣadr’s more militant approach. Unlike the polarizing Sadr, Sistani is widely regarded in Iraq as a reconciler. Sheikh Nasser al-Din Ansari Al-Qomi, an investigator and researcher in the History of Scholars and Professor of Higher Studies in the Qom Seminary, details his meeting with the great religious authority, Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali al-Sistani, may Allah protect him. Here’s a look at the life of Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, Iraq’s most influential Shiite cleric.. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ali-al-Sistani, Council on Foreign Relations - Biography of Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, Official Site of Al-Sayyid Ali Al-Husseini Al-Sistani. Ali Husseini al-Sistani (en arabe : السيد علي الحسيني السيستاني, en persan : سید علی حسینی سیستانی) est un ayatollah iranien né le 4 août 1930 à Mashhad, en Iran. By Track Persia. Ayatollah Sistani is one of the top living scholars of Shia Islam. In spite of these challenges, however, it was clear that Sistani remained one of Iraq’s most powerful figures, and U.S. and Iraqi officials continued to seek his input on important matters. The reclusive, Iranian-born wields great influence over Iraq’s future. Grand Ayatollah al-Sistani "was born in Mashhad, a city in northwest Iran that is home to the country's most sacred Shiite shrine.". In some cases his credibility outweighed that of not only U.S. and United Nations diplomatic envoys but even the interim government of Prime Minister Ayād ʿAllāwī: his strong and moderating influence among the Iraqi populace as a whole earned him the respect of U.S. diplomats and Iraqi leaders, who deferred to many of his wishes. Sayyid Ali Husayni al-Sistani (born 4 August 1930), also known as Ayatollah Sistani or al-Sistani, is one of the most powerful and influential Iranian Twelver Shia marja in Iraq and the head of many of the hawzahs (seminaries) in Najaf. In November 2019, after the Iraqi government responded with violence to widespread demonstrations over corruption and poor services, Sistani called for the resignation of the government, electoral reform, and early elections. He succeeded Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Abu Al Qassim Al Khoei as the most powerful figure in Najaf's Hawza, as the senior Shiite clerical leadership is known, in 1992. Ali al-Sistani, in full ʿAlī al-Ḥusaynī al-Sīstānī, (born August 4, 1930, Mashhad, Iran), Iranian-born Shiʿi cleric and a leader of the Iraqi Shiʿi community. Born to a prominent religious family, Sistani studied the Qurʾān from a young age. He is the most influential person in Iraq, and he also has a large following around the … He held a traditional ‘quietist’ philosophy rather than the ideology of clerical leadership in policy making as promulgated by Ruhollah Khomeini. Who is the Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani? Did you know that Sayyid Sistani used to listen to Imam Khomeini speeches in secret during Saddam’s time? Most of the people who have known His Eminence Sayyid al-Sistani and have spent time with him have noted that, since his youth, he was a quiet person who spent most of his time in meditation and reflection. Al-Sistani is profiled in Anthony Shadid's February 1, 2004, Washington Post article "Call of History Draws Iraqi Cleric to the Political Fore." 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